January 27, 2020 4:03 PM
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Twitter violating womens’ human rights – Amnesty International

Twitter has found itself under fire again. This time, it’s coming from Amnesty International, a non-governmental organization that focuses on human rights. Amnesty International’s new report, “#ToxicTwitter: Violence and abuse against women online,” details Twitter’s failures to ensure safety online and prevent violence and abuse toward women. What Amnesty International is trying to achieve with this report, the organization’s technology and human rights researcher Azmina Dhrodia told TechCrunch, is to look at why and how this is a human rights issue.

By framing it as a human rights issue, Amnesty International says it hopes to be able to push Twitter to enforce its own policies consistently and be transparent about how it’s doing so.

“Twitter’s failure to adequately and consistently enforce their own policies is leading women to either silence or censor themselves online,” Dhrodia told me. “So women are either leaving the platform, they’re thinking five or six times over before they post anything, they’re taking social media breaks. They’re coming up with a whole bunch of different coping mechanisms in order to avoid violence and abuse because they know by speaking out, it’s not going to be dealt with.”

Although Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey has publicly said the company is looking for help to address its issues around safety, Amnesty International says Twitter has declined to provide the organization with any “meaningful data on how the company responds to reports of violence and abuse.”

This report comes after Amnesty International’s 14-month investigation that combined quantitative and qualitative research. The report is based on interviews with 86 women and non-binary people, including journalists, politicians and everyday users across the U.S. and the UK about their experiences online.

“When talking to them about their experience of violence and abuse, Twitter came up consistently as the platform where most women had experienced violence and abuse and also where they felt it was the company that was doing the least to remedy the issue,” Dhrodia said.

The report goes on to outline some recommendations for Twitter moving forward. The first is to share specific examples of the type of violence and abuse Twitter won’t tolerate. Another is to share data on how quickly Twitter responds to reports of abuse, while another is to ensure its decisions to restrict certain content are consistent with international human rights law.

Earlier this month, Twitter began soliciting proposals from the public to help the platform capture, measure and evaluate healthy interactions. The goal is to come up with metrics to measure the health of the interactions on Twitter. But Twitter eventually wants to take that a step further, Dorsey said in a public conversation via Periscope.

“Ultimately we want to have a measurement of how it affects the broader society and public health, but also individual health, as well,” Dorsey said.

As Twitter embarks on its journey to make its platform a safer, more productive place for everyone, it’s relying on third parties to step in to determine the best ways to capture, measure and evaluate health metrics. Perhaps, more importantly, Twitter needs help determining exactly what those metrics entail.

I’ve reached out to Twitter and will update this story if I hear back.

Source: TechCrunch

Uber halts self-driving car tests after death

Uber said it is suspending self-driving car tests in all North American cities after a fatal accident.

A 49-year-old woman was hit by a car and killed as she crossed the street in Tempe, Arizona.

While self-driving cars have been involved in multiple accidents, it is thought to be the first time an autonomous car has been involved in a fatal collision.

Uber chief Dara Khosrowshahi said the death was “incredibly sad news”.

Police said the accident happened Sunday night while the car was in autonomous mode. A human monitor was also behind the wheel.

Police said the woman, Elaine Herzberg, had not been using a pedestrian crossing. She was taken to a local hospital, where she died.

The US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the National Transportation Safety Board said they were sending teams to Tempe.

‘Wake up call’

Companies including Ford, General Motors, Tesla and Waymo are investing heavily in research to develop self-driving cars, which are often characterised as the future of the industry and hailed as a way to reduce traffic accidents.

Many states across America have welcomed the tests in the hope of keeping themselves at the forefront of new technology.

However, there have been warnings that the technology is being deployed before it is ready.

Anthony Foxx, who served as US Secretary of Transportation under former President Barack Obama, called the accident a “wake up call to the entire [autonomous vehicle] industry and government to put a high priority on safety.”

More than a dozen states in the US allow autonomous vehicles on the roads to some degree. Officials typically require a person to be on hand either in the car or remotely in case something goes wrong, according to the Center for Automotive Research.

The US is working on national safety guidelines for such vehicles.

Consumer Watchdog, a lobby group that has warned of the risks of autonomous cars, on Monday called for a moratorium of such vehicles on public roads, describing the accident as a “tragedy we have been fighting years to prevent”.

“We hope our calls for real regulation of driverless cars will be taken seriously going forward by Silicon Valley and the Trump Administration,” the group wrote on Twitter.

Uber started testing driverless cars in Pittsburgh in 2016. The ride-hailing firm has also been testing driverless cars in San Francisco, Pittsburgh, Toronto and the Phoenix area, which includes Tempe.

The death comes a year after Uber took its self-driving cars off the roadfollowing an accident that left a Volvo SUV on its side in Arizona. The programme was later reinstated.

Carla Bailo, president and chief executive of the Center for Automotive Research, said more information about how the crash occurred is necessary before officials can say what went wrong and how the self-driving system should be improved.

She also said the fatality should be considered in the context of all accidents.

More than 37,000 people, including almost 6,000 pedestrians, died in traffic accidents in the US in 2016, according to the US Department of Transportation.

“We need to be fair and look at all the data,” she said. “But I don’t think anybody is taking this lightly. By far safety is the first concern.

Tempe Mayor Mark Mitchell said he supports autonomous car tests because of the technology’s potential. He also praised Uber’s decision to suspend the programme as “responsible”.

“Our city leadership and Tempe Police will pursue any and all answers to what happened in order to ensure safety moving forward,” he said.

Source: BBC

Apple to release cheaper MacBook Air this year

So, you love Apple products but you also love still having money in your bank account — what’s a shopper to do?

Why, buy one of Apple’s rumored less-expensive MacBook Airs allegedly dropping later this year, of course.

Predicting what’s going on inside the minds at 1 Apple Park Way is a notoriously tricky proposition, but analyst Ming-Chi Kuo of KGI Securities has a track record of being pretty damn good at it. His latest investor note, according to 9to5Mac, suggests the tech behemoth plans to release a MacBook Air “with a lower price tag” sometime in the second quarter of 2018.

At present, a 13-inch MacBook Air sells for $999 or $1,199 — depending on the specifications. While merely the expectation of a lower price tag doesn’t give us a lot to go on, it does suggest that Apple sees a way to get its wildly popular laptop into even more hands: Make it cheaper.

Which, yeah, brilliant.

Kuo has some other thoughts about what may be coming down the Apple-shaped pike, too. Specifically, he notes that we should look for an updated AirPod later this year.

Oh, and he also drops a little nugget of possible truth about the HomePod. Namely, that demand for it is merely “mediocre.” Maybe if they released a cheaper version? Hey, I’m just spitballing here.

So there you have it. Apple, Silicon Valley’s embodiment of innovation, might be changing the game all over again with the revolutionary idea of making its products more affordable. If Kuo is right, your wallet will thank you.

Source: Mashable

Cameroon drone start-up aims high for Africa

Talking fast and dreaming big, William Elong shows off the first “made in Cameroon” drone at his sixth-floor workshop in downtown Douala, minutes from the economic capital’s Atlantic seafront.

The 25-year-old, known as a high-flyer after being named one of Forbes’ most promising young Africans under 30, is enthusing about his new unmanned aerial drones and keen to promote his company and Africa as a place where IT and new tech can flourish.

We must “get out of the Afro-centric vision of business” to “understand that when one has a global vision, worldwide, this includes Africa”, Mr Elong says in a discussion of future technologies.

Mr Elong has no degree in IT or robotics but studied strategy and competitive intelligence in France, becoming the youngest-ever graduate from Paris’ Economic Warfare School.

He founded his start-up Will & Brothers in 2015 with a main project called Drone Africa, which aims to provide drones for civil purposes to businesses, the state in Cameroon and elsewhere.

With a top range of up to 20 kilometres, the drones can be used for purposes as different as cartography, media coverage, support for agriculture and detecting gas in mines to reduce the risk of accidents.

“The know-how is here, in Cameroon,” says Mr Elong, who is aware young African talent often seeks employment in Europe and elsewhere. He says at this stage his firm’s capital of $200,000 has come from western backers.

Also supported by the government of President Paul Biya, Mr Elong hopes eventually to raise $2 million to expand the business but he regrets that “not many Africans are involved” in the project, which features two airborne types of drone and one terrestrial model.

The commercial market in Africa is expanding with unmanned aircraft already whizzing across the skies delivering items such as medicine and food, and even helping farmers sow seeds.

In Rwanda, drones get medical supplies such as blood and vaccines to remote areas. Tanzania is launching a similar programme. And drones equipped with night-vision cameras help to detect and track poachers in Kenya, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe.

Mr Elong presents the two airborne prototype models on a table inside his assembly shop. The first “flying wing that we’ve baptised Algo” has the furthest range and could prove an economical solution to the costly task of making maps, he suggests.

The second type, known as Logarythm, has four arms forming a propeller, can reach an altitude of up to 500 metres and is fitted with high-definition cameras, which would be useful in high-risk zones and for precision work, Mr Elong adds.

Crucially, he argues, manufacturing costs are lower than those of foreign manufacturers, so the drones produced will be priced competitively across the African marketplace.

He envisages “selling drones to Vietnam, to Venezuela, to Denmark for example, and becoming one of the biggest global enterprises in this sector”.

Elsewhere, two young engineers in white lab coats are carefully building a prototype. “When all the components are available, we are able to assemble a drone like this in 24 hours,” says engineer Louis Ekani.

Some of the parts are made in Cameroon, while others are supplied from abroad.

“The start was extremely complicated,” says young technical director Yves Tamu, who is described on the company website as an entrepreneur, digital champion and inventor. “But we have a dynamic, autonomous and state-of-the-art team thanks to which we found the solution [to assembling drones].”

The average age of employees is barely 22 and the team comprises mainly engineers and developers who have spent two years building airworthy drones.

“Will & Brothers is the pride of Cameroon,” said Minister of Posts and Telecommunications Libom Li Likeng at a government ceremony to present the drones in early February.

Their design demonstrates “the innovative capacity of Cameroonian youth”, she added.

Mr Elong’s firm is represented in Ivory Coast and he plans to open offices in France and the United States, but he stresses the development of artificial intelligence is his primary goal.

Will & Brothers has worked on an AI known as Cyclops, which enables drones to detect people, objects and vehicles and to identify different types of animal at specific sites.

“Artificial intelligence is the future of humanity,” Mr Elong says, confident that Africa can at least try to compete with the big tech giants in California.

“It knocks me out that so many people here take no interest in technology.


Source: The National Business

Samsung app leaks images of Galaxy S9

Pictures of Samsung’s latest flagship phone have been disclosed by an app released by the firm itself.

The images were discovered hidden via a hack of Unpacked 2018, a program that the company has asked invitees to Sunday’s launch of the handset in Barcelona to download.

The disclosure backs up details divulged by earlier unverified leaks about the Galaxy S9.

Experts say the revelations threaten to detract from the official unveiling.

The images of a computer-generated model of the phone were apparently created to provide an augmented reality experience at Samsung’s Mobile World Congress press event, according to the news site XDA Developers.

It was first to publish the photos. It said they were sourced from an anonymous Reddit user who had decompiled the Android version of the app’s software and then used the findings to fool Samsung into sharing the imagery.

“The 3D models that we obtained were lifted directly Samsung’s server where they are hosted,” Mishaal Rahman, XDA’s editor-in-chief told the BBC.

“There’s no doubt [they are real].

“I think this is the cherry on top of things… anything that is published ahead of Samsung’s event is an embarrassment to them as I’m sure they wanted to keep this a secret.”

Unpacked appThe Unpacked app is made for attendees of Samsung’s event but can be downloaded by anyone

The leak confirms the device strongly resembles its predecessor the Galaxy S8 with minor tweaks, including the fingerprint sensor being moved underneath the rear camera.

A spokesman for Samsung said it did not comment on rumours or speculation.

‘Particularly acute’

Venture Beat reporter Evan Blass had already tweeted several matching renders of the handset since late-January.

In addition:

  • the German-language site WinFuture had published dozens of pictures that appeared to have been made for the phones’ marketing campaign
  • an image shared online, allegedly of the device’s box, indicated the phones would include a dual aperture camera – meaning users will be able to adjust how much light is captured. This was supported by subsequent leaks
  • a Reddit user hosted a Q&A about the S9 after claiming to have handled it for 20 minutes

“This matters,” commented Ben Wood from the CCS Insight consultancy.

“It’s very hard to get people excited about a product that leaks suggest is more of an iterative update to the existing S8 than something more disruptive.

“The leaks seem to have been particularly acute on this occasion and may cost the firm a ‘wow’ moment at its event. But Samsung is not alone in having this problem.”

Apple notably suffered a major leak of its own in September after two news sites were given access to iOS 11’s code before its release.

iPhone XOne tech blogger wrote that more surprises had been spoiled by the iPhone X leak than any other in Apple’s history

The breach confirmed many details about the iPhone X including its name, face-scanning features and animated emojis.

Claimed leaks about forthcoming Lenovo, Nokia, Asus and Sony phones have also been published online ahead of MWC – but none have been tied to the manufacturers in the way Samsung’s Unpacked app has done.

Marketing frenzy

Samsung’s launch is expected to be the biggest – and most expensive – at this year’s MWC, which runs until Thursday 1 March.

“There is still merit in holding set-piece launch events because it offers an opportunity to deliver all the messages about the product in a controlled environment,” said Mr Wood.

“For Samsung in particular, it allows it to flex its marketing muscles.”

But one tech blogger, who will also be attending, cautioned against assuming everything had already been disclosed.

“Often people think they know exactly what’s coming and then it turns out there’s something else,” said Holly Brockwell.

“A good example would be an HTC event where its phone had already leaked, and we were sitting there feeling pretty smug, and then it revealed the Vive virtual reality headset, which we didn’t know anything about. That was pretty amazing.

“Anyway, a lot of these rumours become fuel to the fire and make people more excited about the launch.”

Samsung has proven itself capable of keeping surprises to itself in the past.

Mark ZuckerbergSamsung’s audience was caught by surprise when Facebook’s chief executive appeared in 2016

An appearance by Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg to promote its own virtual reality tech at Samsung’s 2016 MWC event was kept under wraps until he entered the hall.

“That provided one of the most memorable moments of any launch in the past decade,” acknowledged Mr Wood.

Source: BBC

Data utilization is changing everything, don’t get left behind

Data is everything and it’s made the online world ruthless. Sites of every stripe are desperately trying to make themselves heard and most of them are struggling to keep up amongst thousands of voices.

It’s brutal, and in such saturated market, websites can’t just rely on awesome content, insider information, or anything else purely qualitative. To win this fight to be the fittest, businesses and websites need to be data-driven.

The most successful teams have adopted the primary characteristic of all leading data-driven projects, one that will dominate the industry – data utilization.

It’s a simple concept: Data utilization is the rate at which a team utilizes the data tool it has at its disposal. So if five out of ten editors use one tool, then that team’s data utilization rate is 50%.

If team players fully understand the data they work with they’ll be more productive and proficient than if they just rely on one team member crunching the numbers.

For media teams the benefits are obvious. Editors who fully understand what their consumers want quantitatively, not just qualitatively, are quicker to adapt to meet demand.

Utilization = Monetization

E-commerce projects (websites that provide and sell goods and services) reap the rewards of data utilization in several ways.

They gain a better understanding of sales dynamics and page and email optimization. Due to this, conversion rates increase and over-warehousing is minimized.

Marketers too stand to benefit from data utilization as bids or tenders become more cost-effective, all they need to do is use data to find the best solution for the optimal value.

It seems simple, doesn’t it? However, the vast majority of professionals working online are failing to grasp data utilization. This is going to prove a seriously costly mistake and will irrevocably compromise their competitiveness.

The way to avoid this pitfall is to use a data analytics tool. Thankfully, the market abounds with options you can choose from. Some tools are offered by global giants like Google, others are established names or independent start-ups.

Is your team reaching its full potential?

Alex Krutko is CEO of media at .io technologies, an up and coming start-up that provides data analysis tools for online projects.

“Data-driven teams need to be fully utilized to achieve their potential,” says Krutko.

He’s adamant about the importance of data utilization and its financial benefits as every team member will grow and develop the business with the same understanding as a unit.

“Usually a company might use 20 – 30 third-party products to solve daily problems, Imagine, on average each tool costs from $1000 to month. So if you pay $1000 per month for 10 licenses but it’s used by 2 people.”

“As a result, the cost per person is $500 instead of $100 and the data utilization rate equals 20% . A high result would mean a tool that was being used by at least 80% of the team,” says Krutko.

Utilize data to build your dreams

While projects of any size can reap the rewards of becoming data utilized, in particular, companies with ambitious growth plans can feel real benefit. This is especially apparent in emerging markets.

Mike Solo is the managing editor at Genesis Media, a global internet company running media projects on almost every continent. Genesis’ projects in Kenya and Nigeria have grown rapidly to become those countries leading news sites, none of which would have been possible without data utilization.

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“Data utilization allows our projects to stop operating blindly,” Solo says.

“We look into our content, and the ‘technical health’ of our site constantly, in fact the ability to make data-driven decisions thanks to utilization is priceless.”

“As data utilization increases, the discipline and awareness of our editorial staff increases too. Our team members know who is doing what, who are the authors of the most viewed / shared stories, and which topics made it to the bottom part of .io technologies’ reports.”

Both projects, along with Genesis’ sister project in Ghana, consistently maintain a utilization rate of 75%, and as this rate increased across all three projects, the benefits were shared between them.

“Data utilization is based on the same principles across all the projects operated by Genesis Media Emerging Markets,” Solo says.

“All the best practices tested and approved on one project are likely to be applied on another one.”

Choose the right tool for the right team

Data utilization will define the industry in the same manner monetization and instant articles did. It’s a game changer with amazing benefits and you shouldn’t get left behind.

You’re faced with a plethora of choices when it comes to choosing which analytics tool to use, and ultimately, every professional, every team needs to find their own solution to any issue they face.

Choosing a tool that gives you as much data as possible is a great start, but if you want to truly maximize and utilize your data, make sure you the tool you use is easy to use and has dedicated support on hand when you need it.

To .io technologies’ Krutko, it’s clear that teams absolutely must become data utilized to survive.

“If your colleagues don’t use data they won’t help you to improve your business, on the contrary they will harm it because they’ll think everything is under control,” he says.

“Usually, nobody wants to use new tools, they don’t want to understand them. Data utilization should be solved not by you, but by the system you decide to buy. Your tool shouldn’t simply show you the data you need, it should show you how to use it.”

“All employees should work to achieve global goals, and you can be sure that your business is working in this way if each employee is involved as much as possible with data.” You can’t just rely on instinct to survive in an industry dominated by more information than has ever been accumulated in human history. With the right tools, and the right mindset, a data utilized team will make your dreams come true.


Source: huffingtonpost

US intelligence warns against using Huawei and ZTE phones

Things are still looking pretty bleak for Huawei’s plans to conquer the U.S. market.

Earlier this week, top members of intelligence agencies, which includes the FBI, CIA and NSA reaffirmed surveillance concerns about the company and fellow Chinese smartphone maker ZTE.

All of this is nothing new, of course. The companies’ troubles date back at least as far back as 2012 when a House Intelligence Committee cited both as potential security risks over close ties to the Chinese government.

The following year, they were both barred from selling the product to the U.S. government.

FBI director Chris Wray echoed those concerns during a hearing Tuesday, stating, “We’re deeply concerned about the risks of allowing any company or entity that is beholden to foreign governments that don’t share our values to gain positions of power inside our telecommunications networks.”

Huawei has since issued a response, accusing the government of “inhibiting [its] business in the U.S. market” and adding, “Huawei is trusted by governments and customers in 170 countries worldwide and poses no greater cybersecurity risk than any ICT vendor, sharing as we do common global supply chains and production capabilities.”

The letter closely echoed the statements of an angry Richard Yu on stage last month at CES. “We’ve won the trust of the Chinese carriers,” Yu fumed at the company’s keynote. “We’ve also won spots on all of the European carriers.”

That off-the-cuff speech came after an AT&T deal fell through last second, seemingly at the behest of the same lawmakers warning against purchasing the company’s hardware.

It was a big blow for the company, given that a majority of U.S. phone purchases still go through carriers.

Meantime, Huawei has attempted to double down on non-carrier retailers in the States.

That aggressive push, however, has put the company in even more hot water, as fake reviews for its flagship the Mate 10 Pro have reportedly surfaced on Best Buy’s website, apparently linked to a Facebook contest spurred on by Huawei.

Source: TechCrunch

Twitter ends support for unpopular Mac desktop app

On Friday, Twitter announced that it would be shutting down work on its Mac desktop app.

Users have 30 days, starting on Feb. 16, before the app will no longer be supported, Twitter said.

“We’re focusing our efforts on a great Twitter experience that’s consistent across platforms,” Twitter Support wrote in a tweet. “So, starting today the Twitter for Mac app will no longer be available for download, and in 30 days will no longer be supported.”

The app hadn’t exactly been flourishing in recent years, scoring a dismal 1.7 out of 5 in the App Store. Twitter had outsourced the development of the app to a studio in Seattle called Black Pixel.

Some users had been hoping for a dramatic desktop update since 2015, but most have since migrated to Twitterific or Tweetbot. Others are now expressing concern that Twitter might shut down Tweetdeck, a far more popular multi-column client.

It’s unclear what Twitter will do, since the company hasn’t always marched in step with its user base.

Let the ratios tell the whole story.

Source: Mashable

Digital in 2018: Africa’s internet users increase by 20%

An annual report released by global digital agencies, We Are Social and Hootsuite, reveals that Africa has seen the fastest growth rates in internet penetration, with the number of internet users across the continent increasing by more than 20% compared to 2017.

The ‘Digital in 2018’ report shows that over half of the world’s population is now online (4.021 billion), with the latest data showing that nearly a quarter of a billion new users came online for the first time in 2017.

Key findings

Much of this year’s growth in internet users has been driven by more affordable smartphones and mobile data plans.

Users in Africa are up by more than 20 percent, with the reported number of internet users in Mali increasing by almost 6 times since January 2017.

The number of internet users in Benin, Sierra Leone, Niger, and Mozambique has more than doubled over the past year too.

More than 200 million people got their first mobile device in 2017, and two-thirds of the world’s 7.6 billion inhabitants (5.135 billion) now have a mobile phone.

Mobile penetration rates however remain below 50 percent across much of Central Africa.

Social Media

More than 3 billion people around the world now use social media each month, with 9 in 10 of those users accessing their chosen platforms via mobile devices.

There were 11 new users on social media every second of the year 2017 as 1 million people started using social media for the first time every day over the past year.

The latest data from GlobalWebIndex shows that the average internet user now spends around 6 hours each day using internet-powered devices and services – that’s roughly one-third of their waking lives.

Facebook’s dominance

Facebook’s core platform still dominates the global social landscape, with total users up 15 percent year-on-year to reach almost 2.17 billion at the start of 2018.

WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger both grew twice as fast as the core Facebook platform, with the number of people using each messenger app up by 30 percent.

WhatsApp is now the top messenger app in 128 countries around the world, compared to Facebook Messenger’s 72.

There are now only 25 countries around the world where a Facebook-owned app isn’t the top messenger platform.

Despite these impressive statistics for the instant messaging platforms, Instagram was the standout Facebook-owned app over the past 12 months, with the number of global users up by a third.

Data usage

Mobile data connections are getting faster all over the world, with GSMA Intelligence reporting that more than 60 percent of mobile connections can now be classified as ‘broadband’.

Average mobile connection speeds increased by more than 30 percent over the past year, a statistic that that is important since faster connections may also help to reduce stress.

Research has shown that delays of just a few seconds while buffering video content can trigger the same increase in anxiety levels as watching a horror movie on your own, or trying to solve a complex maths problem.

Partly thanks to these faster download speeds, the average smartphone user around the world now consumes almost 3GB of data every month – an increase more than 50 percent since this time last year.


Source: Africanews.com

Bitcoin falls below $6,000

The value of Bitcoin has fallen to below $6,000 – its lowest price since November 2017.

The price fell to $5,947.40 (£4,256.44) on Tuesday, according to a price index run by news website Coindesk.

Bitcoin reached its peak in November, when it hit $19,000, and then began to fall steadily from mid-December.

The latest fall comes a day after several major US and UK banks banned customers from using credit cards to purchase the digital currency.

Tightening legislation in several countries appears to have shaken confidence in crypto-currencies.

As of Tuesday:

  • The price of Ethereum, which at its height on 9 January was $1,255.89, fell as low as $574.42
  • Bitcoin Cash, which hit a peak $4,091.70 on 20 December 2017, slipped to $766.03
  • Litecoin, which reached $366.01 on 19 December 2017, dropped to $106.94

The assets later stage a partial recovery, with Bitcoin rising to about $7,418 before falling back again.

Source: BBC

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